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Patria AMV Nordic Infantry Fighting Vehicle

finland

Patria AMV

Patria AMV with AMOS Twin 120mm Mortar
Unveiled / Entered Service
2003
Patria AMV Armored Modular Vehicle
Status
in-service
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Introduction

Patria AMV Armored Modular Vehicle development started in 1995 as a replacement to the Patria Pasi 6×6 APC aka XA-180 series for the Finnish Army. Trials started in 2003 and orders  for the vehicle were placed in the same year with its Finnish manufacturer, Patria.

Exports of the AMV have exceeded Patria’s European competitors and it is now in service with ten countries and produced under licence in four. As of 2023, Japan and Ukraine are the most recent countries to adopt the vehicle.

The Polish Army deployed their version of the AMV as part of  ISAF during the War in Afghanistan and was dubbed “The Green Devil” by the Taliban.

Since 2013, production has switched to the much improved version, the AMV XP. The abbreviation XP stands for Extra Payload, Extra Performance, Extra Protection.

An amphibious landing version, the AMV28A has also been developed and is one of five different models based on the original AMV.

Patria has collaborated with other defence companies such as Lockheed Martin, BAE Systems, CMI Defence and others to develop a wide range of models and variants of the vehicle.

Background

The Finnish Patria AMV 8×8 has been developed to provide optimal modularity of components and to be adaptable for a wide range of versions without changing basic vehicle systems. Patria AMV is available in three different models:

1.    Basic model provides the platform for following variants: armoured personnel carrier (APC), infantry fighting vehicle (IFV), command vehicle, ambulance, reconnaissance vehicle, anti-tank guided missile vehicle (ATGM), armoured repair and recovery vehicle (ARRV), and finally, the 120 mm Patria Nemo mortar system.

2.    High Roof Model provides extra space at the rear of the vehicle (34 cm higher than the basic model), which is ideal if the vehicle is used as a command, C4I, ambulance or workshop vehicle.

3.    Heavy Weapon Platform has been optimised to carry large-calibre weapon systems such as the 120mm AMOS mortar system or the 105/120mm cannon (MGS).

Licensed Manufacturers

Though some AMV’s are produced by Patria, the company has also signed agreements with various companies in several countries for the licensed production of the AMV. (the company uses Patria’s intellectual property design) This includes production for domestic and export.

The end-user agreement (like all licence built military vehicles) means Patria has the right to say if significant modifications can be made. It can also say, which countries the licensed producer can sell their AMV’s too.

Croatia

Croatian company Đuro Đaković produced the AMV for the Croatian Army. They signed an agreement for a common effort in sales of Patria AMV vehicles to case-by-case selected third countries in 2011 and finalised in 2012, meaning the Company can produce the AMV for export.

Japan

In December 2022, the Japanese Ministry of Defense placed a formal order for the Patria AMV XP. In 2023 Patria signed a licensing agreement with Japan Steel Works Ltd to manufacturer the AMV XP for the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force as a replacement to the Type 96 8×8 wheeled APC.

Poland

Polish company WZM S.A. initially signed an agreement to produce the AMV aka Rosomak in 2002/2003. In July 2013 a new licence agreement was signed and under the terms of the new contract WZM receives license rights to manufacture Rosomaks until 2023 and maintenance rights until 2052.

South Africa

Denel Land Systems and Patria signed an agreement in November 2013 regarding Patria AMV 8×8 armoured wheeled vehicle serial production and delivery to South Africa.

Firepower

Armoured Personnel Carrier

In this base model, the AMV is used to transport troops under arm across the battlefield. The module accommodates 8 troops, each sitting in their own chair side by side in the rear and the vehicle commander at the front who operates the Kongsberg Protector Remote Weapon Station, which has a thermal sight and .50cal Machine Gun.

Infantry Fighting Vehicle

A step up from the APC, the IFV version features the same layout, with the exception of a mounted medium calibre remote weapon station (such as the Israeli Samson, Norwegian MCT 30, British WSCP Turret etc) armed with a 20 to 30mm chain gun and optional Anti-Tank Guided Missile launcher, such as the Javelin or Spike. The crew has increased to include a Gunner who operates the turrets weapons.

The AMV can also take traditional, manned turrets. The United Arab Emirates AMV have the same two-man turret from the BMP-3.

Tank Destroyer

The AMV can be fitted with a number of modular turret systems featuring either a 90mm, 105mm or 120mm main gun, such as the CMI 105 turret.

Turreted Mortar Systems

Patria has developed two turret mortar systems, the NEMO and AMOS as an alternative to the traditional mortar firing from within the back of a wheeled vehicle. Both systems have been installed on the AMV.

These turrets have a number of advantages such as speed (set-up and loading), protection (all operations under armour) Multiple Rounds Simultaneous Impact (MRSI) and both direct and indirect engagement.

Protection

Modular Protection

The AMV is a welded steel construction with sections of modular armor along the hull sides and front. These modular sections consist of external mounting points where ceramic passive armored plates are attached. These can be easily removed and replaced quickly on the battlefield if damaged.

The use of modular armor also enables the mounted passive armor to be upgraded (mission dependant) from Level 1 (7.62mm) to Level 6 (30mm AP) of STANAG 4569, resulting in visual changes in shape, thickness and arrangement of the armor. The passive armor is normally mounted a few centimeters away from the hulls surface.

The AMV can also have additional bolt on boxed modular armor as well as Bar Armor or RPG Netting and Active Protection Systems (see below).

AMAP-ADS Active Protection System

At DSEi 2007, Patria and IBD Deisenroth Engineering unveiled the Patria AMV with the AMAP-ADS Active Protection System. The system comprises of modules running across the hull sides, front and rear corners.

Each module has several launching boxes to fire a counter measure at incoming projectiles. The side hull modules have a backing passive armor to catch any spall/fragmentation from the intercepted projectile. AMAP-ADS has now been superseded by “active protection system ADS”.

Variants and Marks

AMV XP

The Patria AMV XP is the second generation of the highly successful Patria AMV and was first unveiled to the public at the 2013 DSEI Defence Expo. The abbreviation XP stands for Extra Payload, Extra Performance, Extra Protection.

The XP is manufactured in two models. The standard model height is used for most manufactured variants (and other proposed ones) and a high roof model for ambulance and command variants. READ MORE

AMV28A

Unveiled for IDEX 2017, this new model has been developed for amphibious landing operations. READ MORE

AMV35

A prototype version of the AMV featuring the tracked CV9035 IFV turret for the Australian Army’s Land 400 Phase 2 combat reconnaissance vehicle program (the replacement of their ageing LAV II vehicles). Germany’s Boxer was selected as the winner of the project. READ MORE

HAVOC MPC

Another prototype developed as a joint project between Patria and Lockheed Martin for the USMC “Marine Personnel Carrier” (MPC) program, which was seeking a replacement for their LAV-25 (version of the LAV II). Both companies have withdrawn from the joint project and the HAVOC is no longer offered. READ MORE

Mechanised Infantry Vehicle featured an AMV hull married to a Lockheed Martin Warrior WSCP Turret

Mechanised Infantry Vehicle aka “MIV”

A concept vehicle developed by Lockheed Martin UK, it was first seen at the DVD 2016 defence expo held at the Millbrook Proving Ground (UK).

the Mechanised Infantry Vehicle featured an AMV hull married to a Lockheed Martin Warrior WSCP Turret (equipped with a  Javelin ATGM Launcher). Staff at the stand confirmed the vehicle had been trialled with an undisclosed Middle East client. The vehicle is not marketed on the companies website.

Operators

Current AMV Operators

Croatia

The AMV entered service with the Croatian Army in 2008. A total of 126 Patria AMVs have been delivered to Croatia. They were built under licence by Croatian Firm Đuro Đaković.

Finland

Model: XA-360

Developed for its own requirements as a replacement of the 6×6 Patria Pasi, they use two models, the standard APC is designated the XA-360. It uses the established PROTECTOR M151 Remote Weapon Station, which can be mounted with either the M2 .50cal MG or the Heckler & Koch GMG automatic grenade launcher. The second model is the XA-361. It is equipped with the Patria Nemo remote-controlled 120mm mortar turret. 62 XA-360 APC and 18 XA-361 are in Finnish Army service.

Poland

Model: KTO Rosomak “Wolverine”

As the largest operator and licensed manufacturer, their modified models have seen active service and come under fire in Afghanistan and Chad.

Designated the Kołowy Transporter Opancerzony Rosomak, which translates into Wheeled Armoured Vehicle “Wolverine”, the KTO Rosomak will replace the ageing OT-64 SKOT 8×8 wheeled APC. The Rosomak is fully amphibious with rear water jets.

Slovenia

Model: Svarun

135 had been ordered in 2006 and the first vehicle was delivered in June 2009. Production was under licence with Slovenian company Indop. However only 30 were built after legal issues. In 2012 Patria signed a settlement with Indop offsetting the original licensing agreement. The 30 AMV will remain in service, no further orders are expected and Patria will now provide life cycle support.

South Africa

Model: Badger

In November 2013, Denel Land Systems and Patria signed a contract for the serial production and delivery of Patria AMVs to the South African National Defence Force. The contract includes 238 vehicles; of which five prototype series vehicles were already delivered during the development phase of the project. Patria will handle production of the first 16 vehicles.

Thereafter, serial production will be moved to South Africa, with Denel Land Systems being responsible for the production and final integration of the vehicles.

In South Africa, Patria AMV is known as Badger. There will be five versions: a standard infantry carrier, a command car, fire support variant, mortar carrier and tank hunter, costing roughly $145 million (US).

Sweden

The Swedish Defence Material Administration and Patria signed a contract in June 2009 for 113 Patria AMV for the Swedish Army as part of the project known as AWV 2014.

The value of the contract is approximately 240 million EURO’s. The purchase had been halted after BAE Hagglunds who had been developing a similar line of Modular tracked & wheeled vehicles for Sweden went to court. BAE claimed issues with competition biding and procurement process by the Swedish Defence Material Administration.

In November 2010 The Administrative Court of Stockholm announced the Swedish Defence Material Administration had conducted the armoured wheeled vehicle tender in accordance with the act on public procurement. The first vehicles were delivered in March 2013 and there is an option for another 113 vehicles.

Ukraine

100 Polish KTO Rosomak have been purchased in 2023. Its not clear, which model has been purchased or if they are buying existing in-service/surplus Polish Army vehicles which will replenished by newly built vehicles in Poland. The purchase has been funded by the USA and EU partners.

United Arab Emirates

Operating the largest fleet of BMP-3 (600), an AMV mounting the BMP-3’s turret was publicly displayed in the UAE. The BMP-3 turret mounts a 100mm main gun, which can fire anti-tank missiles and has a 30mm auto cannon. It’s expected that the AMV will work alongside the BMP-3 but offer a greater level of mobility.

The UAE announced the order in January 2016, but anything such as the number order are classified. Patria has establised a company office in the UAE since the order and have confirmed the AMV for UAE will be manufactured in Poland.

Current AMV XP Operators

Japan

In December 2022, the Japanese Ministry of Defense placed a formal order for the Patria AMV XP. In 2023 Patria signed a licensing agreement with Japan Steel Works Ltd to manufacturer the AMV XP for the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force as a replacement to the Type 96 8×8 wheeled APC.

Slovakia

Known locally as the “BOV 8×8 Vydra”, 76 new AMV XP vehicles were ordered in 2022. Deliveries are expected to be completed in 2027.

AMV Failed Bid

Australia

Model: AMV35

The Patria AMV35 is a hybrid vehicle consisting of “off the shelve components”, namely the Patria AMV 8×8 hull and BAE Systems-Hägglunds CV9035 Turret.

On the 28th of July 2016,  BAE Systems-Hägglunds announced that the AMV35 is 1 of 2 vehicles selected to take part in the 12-month Risk Mitigation Activity for the Australian Army’s Land 400 Phase 2 combat reconnaissance vehicle program.

Kuwait

In 2013 Croatian AMV licensed producer Đuro’s Patria announced they had sent a AMV to Kuwait for final testing. Kuwait currently operates a number of wheeled APC.

Macedonia

Macedonia has stated it would like to purchase the licence built AMV from Croatia. It’s believed that talks were still ongoing in 2014. The number to be bought has yet to be publicly announced.

Malaysia

The army operates the Polish Twardy Tank. It held field trials in 2006 of the Rosomak supplied by Polish licensed producer WZM S.A.

United States of America (USMC) “HAVOC”

Model HAVOC

Patria and Lockheed Martin had agreed to cooperate in the competition for the US Marines MPC (Marine Personnel Carrier) program. The MPC is set to replace the LAV-25. The USMC is planning to obtain 600 MPC vehicles. Patria delivered the AMV 8×8 vehicle. Lockheed Martin Systems Integration was responsible for  system integration and survivability systems. It was planned that Lockheed ran the US production line, as well as networking and logistics. The new hybrid was called the HAVOC.

In June 2013 the Marine Corps officially put the MPC program on hold. In February 2014 the project was back on, now known as Amphibious Combat Vehicle (ACV) Phase I program. However, in July 2015 partnership between Patria and Lockheed Martin came to an end.

United Kingdom

At DVD 2016, held at the Millbrook Proving Ground (UK), Lockheed Martin UK had on display the Mechanised Infantry Vehicle aka “MIV”. It featured an AMV hull married to a Lockheed Martin Warrior WSCP Turret (equipped with a  Javelin ATGM Launcher).

In 2018, the British Army rejoined the Boxer Program and placed an order for the vehicle in the same year.

Specifications

characteristic
Result
Main Gun
Various – 7.62mm RWS to Rifled 105mm
ATGM Capability
Optional Javelin or Spike
Secondary Weapons
optional-remote-weapons-station-with-mg
Ammunition Storage
N/A
Engine
543hp DI 12 Scania Diesel
Transmission
7 speed Automatic
Top Road Speed
100 km/h
Road Range
600 – 800 km
Fuel Capacity
?
Vertical Obstacle
0.7m
Water Capability
Fording 2m / Amphibious 6 – 10 km/h
Trench Crossing
2.1m
Gradient
60%
Side Slope
30%
Length Gun Forward
N/A
Length Hull
7.9m
Width
2.8m
Height
2.4m (2.7m high roof version)
Ground Clearance
?
Weight
17 – 27 tonne depending on variant
NBC Protected
yes
Standard Armor(s) Type
steel, composite, spaced, modular
Optional Add-on Armor(s) Type
composite, bar
Active Protection Systems
hard-kill
Crew
commander, driver, optional-crew
Infantry
8