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poland

KTO Rosomak

KTO Rosomak image 4
Unveiled / Entered Service
2002
KTO Rosomak image 2a
Status
in-service
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the highly anticipated MMO tactical tank shooter for 2024.
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the highly anticipated MMO tactical tank shooter for 2024.

Introduction

The KTO Rosomak is the Polish designation for the Finnish Patria AMV 8×8 Combat Vehicle. The KTO Rosmak is built under licence in Poland by WZM S.A. and has received a number of modifications to meet the needs of the Polish Army.

The Polish Army deployed the Rosomak as part of  ISAF during the War in Afghanistan where it was dubbed “The Green Devil” by the Taliban.

WZM have developed the Rosomak into a family of variants for the Polish Army and other export models. In 2023 an agreement was signed to supply Ukraine with 100 IFV KTO Rosomak.

Background

Known in the former Czechoslovakia as the OT-64 and as SKOT in the former Polish People’s Republic, the SKOT was an 8×8 wheeled APC developed as a joint project with Czechoslovakia and entered production in 1963.

By the time Poland joined NATO in 1999, the SKOT was out dated and a replacement desperately needed. The Swiss MOWAG Piranha, Austrian Steyr Pandur and Finnish Patria AMV were the front runners in the replacement program.

The Finnish Patria AMV was the eventual winner and first orders for the vehicle to be built under licence by Polish Defence Company Rosomak S.A. were placed in 2002.

KTO is an abbreviation for Kołowy Transporter Opancerzony, which is Polish for “Wheeled Armored Vehicle” and Rosomak means “Wolverine”.

The initial model built were the Infantry Fighting Vehicle with 2 man Oto Melara Hitfist-30P gun turret. This would later follow on with other orders, such as seven Rosomak Command and Control vehicles delivered in 2018 and additional Rosomak RaK Mortars ordered in 2019.

Firepower

Oto Melara Hitfist-30P

The 2 man Oto Melara Hitfist-30P gun turret is armed with the 30mm ATK Mk44 chain gun and 7.62mm NATO UKM-2000C coaxial Machine Gun. It has a modern fire control system with thermal sight and stabilization to the cannon for accurate firing on the move and can be equipped with an Anti-Tank Guided Missile launcher (Spike) if required.

ZSSW-30 Unmanned Turret (2023)

As of 2023, 70 Rosomak are having their Hitfist-30P turrets replaced with the Polish ZSSW-30 unmanned turret. The turret offers improvements in detection, lethality and protection. Armed with the 30mm ATK Mk44 chain gun (fully stabilised) and coax 7.62mm UKM-2000C machine gun a new dual Spike ATGM launching pod is installed as standard on the right-side of the turret.

Spike is an Israeli Tandem Charged, Fire-and-Forget Anti-Tank Guided Missile that is produced under licence in Poland by Mesko. The particular model used is the Spike-LR (Long Range) which is capable of hitting targets up to 4,000 meters away.

It features the latest in digital fire control systems and a new Commanders Independent Sight with thermal channel for an increased detection capability.

 

Protection

The Rosomak is constructed of welded steel with sections of modular armor along the hull sides and front. These modular sections consist of external mounting points where ceramic passive armored plates are attached. These can be easily removed and replaced quickly on the battlefield if damaged.

The use of modular armor also enables the mounted passive armor to be upgraded (mission dependant) from Level 1 (7.62mm) to Level 6 (30mm AP) of STANAG 4569, which was the case when it was deployed to Afghanistan and received additional protection (see combat history).

The Hitfist-30P gun turret’s Active Protection System is the Obra laser warning system connected to six 81mm 902A ZM Dezamet smoke grenade launchers. When a laser designator is pointed at the vehicle, the crew are alerted and smoke grenades are deployed to mask the vehicle and break the lock.

The ZSSW-30 unmanned turret uses the latest version of the Obra system, the SSP-1 Obra-3. Being unmanned, the commander and gunner are now stationed in the safer hull module.

Variants and Marks

Other than production for just the Polish Army, WZM S.A are able to export the Rosomak to other countries, something which is not possible with all production licence agreements. It is understood that the KTO Rosomak has only been trialled by Malaysia.

IFV Rosomak HITFIST Turret

The initial Infantry Fighting Vehicle model  featuring the 2 man Oto Melara Hitfist-30P gun turret is armed with the 30mm ATK Mk44 chain gun.

IFV Rosomak ZSSW-30 unmanned Turret

An upgraded version introduced in 2023 armed with SPIKE-LR ATGM launching pod.

Rosomak-M1M

An upgraded version of the already up-armoured IFV Rosomak deployed during the War in Afghanistan featuring QinetiQ RPGNet for added protection against RPG-7 attacks. The added protection required the external amphibious equipment to be removed.

Rosomak Command and Control

Developed to coordinate the activities of the NATO Enhanced Forward Presence battle groups deployed in Poland and the Baltic countries, the IT systems installed in the vehicle are developed by WB Electronics SA.

Rosomak Medevac PM2

The “battlefield ambulance” version of the Rosomak, it features a high roof structure for the treatment and evacuation of injured soldiers on the battlefield. It carries all of the necessary medical equipment to maintain an injured solider until evacuated to a field hospital. Other equipment includes Automatic stretcher loading system for up to 3 stretchers. The crew includes Driver, Commander and x2 field medics.

Rosomak APC

Considered the baseline vehicle, it is equipped with a one man, 360 degree powered traverse, lightweight turret that features several observation windows and offers the crewman protection to level 3, STANAG 4569. It can be mounted with either a 7.62mm or 12.7mm machine gun or a 40mm belt-fed grenade launcher.

Rosomak-S

Similar to the Rosomak APC, it lacks the lightweight turret and is modified internally for the transportation of two, two man Anti-Tank teams, their Spike LR hand held launchers and spare missiles.

Technical Reconnaissance Vehicle (APC-TRV)

The Armoured Recovery Vehicle of the Rosomak Family, its used to recover broken down vehicles and complete repairs on the battlefield.

M120 RaK Self Propelled Mortar

Featuring a new turret housing a 120mm mortar, the RaK can fire up to ranges of 15km’s and has a HEAT round for direct fire against armoured vehicles. It features integrated communication, command and fire control systems. In addition, RaK is supported by a Rosomak artillery command vehicle.

Reconnaissance Vehicle

This variant features automated battlefield reconnaissance systems, such as: observation, detection of risk factors, communication and IT.

Rosomak XP

The Polish version of the Patria AMV XP.

Rosomak WOLF

A Rosomak hull married to a CT-CV 105HP Turret, which is armed with a 105mm rifled main gun capable of firing the  FALARICK 105 ATGM. Protection for the 2-man crew can be increased to Level 4 of STANAG 4569.

Rosomak Direct Support Vehicle (DSV) aka “Wilk 2”

Fitted with a Cockerill Mechanical Industries (CMI) XC-8 120HP turret armed with a 120mm Calibre Length 47 smoothbore main gun. this turret has been fitted and displayed on such vehicles as the CV90120T, South Korean K21 tracked Infantry Fighting Vehicle and Patria AMV.

Operators

Poland

Between 2002 and 2013, Poland ordered 877 Rosomak in different variants, including the standard Rosomak IFV. From 2018, 7 command and control vehicles as well as 64 RaK Self Propelled Mortars and 32 Artillery Command Vehicles were delivered. In 2020 it was announced that additional Rosomak would be purchased focusing on the Rosomak-S APC.

Slovakia (cancelled)

Signing a letter of intent to purchase 30+ Rosomak in 2015, the order was eventually cancelled by Slovakia and a few years later, AMV were ordered directly from Patria in Finland.

Ukraine

100 vehicles were purchased in 2023 and reportedly seen action in the Russian Invasion of Ukraine.

Combat History

War In Afgainstain

Poland reportedly operated over 100 Rosomak in different variants during its participation to ISAF. The vehicle suffered only one crew loss, when a vehicle was flipped in an IED attack and sadly crushed the Gunner.

European Union mission in Chad

Several Rosomak IFV were deployed with Polish Forces.

Russian Invasion Of Ukraine

Ukraine has been supplied with the Rosomak IFV (and possible RaK mortars in a leaked social media video). Oryx Blog confirms x3 vehicles destroyed and x1 damaged.

 

 

 

Specifications

characteristic
Result
Main Gun
30mm ATK Mk44 chain gun
ATGM Capability
Optional Spike-LR ATGM
Secondary Weapons
coaxial-7.62mm-machine-gun
Ammunition Storage
?
Engine
543hp DI 12 Scania Diesel
Transmission
7 speed Automatic
Top Road Speed
100 km/h
Road Range
600 – 800 km
Fuel Capacity
?
Vertical Obstacle
0.7m
Water Capability
Fording 2m / Amphibious 6 – 10 km/h
Trench Crossing
2.1m
Gradient
60%
Side Slope
30%
Length Gun Forward
N/A
Length Hull
7.7m
Width
2.8m
Height
2.3m
Ground Clearance
?
Weight
17 – 27 tonne depending on variant
NBC Protected
yes
Standard Armor(s) Type
steel, composite, modular
Optional Add-on Armor(s) Type
composite, bar, modular
Active Protection Systems
soft-kill
Crew
commander, driver, gunner
Infantry
8+