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Combat Vehicle 90

Sweden

Combat Vehicle 90

Combat Vehicle 90
Unveiled / Entered Service
1991
CV90 Tank
Status
In Service
Steel Aces Play for free
the highly anticipated MMO tactical tank shooter for 2024.

Table of Contents

Steel Aces Play for free
the highly anticipated MMO tactical tank shooter for 2024.

Introduction

Commonly referred to as the Combat Vehicle 90, the CV90 is a family of Swedish Tracked Infantry Fighting Vehicles developed from the Stridsfordon 9040 aka Strf 9040, built by the former company Hägglunds, now part of BAE Systems AB.

The Strf 9040 hull has served as the testbed for a number of proposed medium tank designs. These have sported different turrets armed with rifled 105mm and 120mm smoothbore main guns during the late 1990’s when many people speculated the Main Battle Tank would be made redundant in favor of these medium tanks, a concept that has been proven wrong with countries still buying MBT’s.

The Strf 9040 and export models of the Infantry Fighting Vehicle are in service with 7 countries in Europe and trailed in a number of others.

The Strf 9040 has since been upgraded for the Swedish Army, modified to spec for export clients, such as armor, main gun and fire control systems. These receive new Mk designations and new CV90 names which include the calibre of the main gun.

Background

Complete time line of all STRF 9040

1986: Swedish Strf 9025 Prototype Delivered

Combat Vehicle 90 – Mk0 Strf 9025 Prototype
Combat Vehicle 90 – Mk0 Strf 9025 Prototype

During the development and trial process, Sweden trialled the Strf 90 with both a 25mm and 40mm cannon, with the possible intention of a mixture of the vehicle fitted with both cannons. The 25mm idea was dropped and remained at the prototype stage.


1991: Swedish Army Strf 9040 Ordered (Mk0)

Combat Vehicle 90 Mk0 Swedish Strf 9040
Combat Vehicle 90 Mk0 Swedish Strf 9040

Details of Vehicle: Mk 0. Analog environment & 14 Litre Scania Engine

The eventual production model was known as the Strf 9040. It is armed with a Bofors 40mm main gun, which was un-stabilized limiting its fire on the move capability. The in service Swedish Strf vehicles were/are considered as Mark 0 aka Mk0. READ MORE STRF 9040 PAGE


1993: Swedish Army Lvkv 90 Ordered (Mk0)

Combat Vehicle 90 – Mk0 Strf 9040 Lvkv 90 SPAAG
Combat Vehicle 90 – Mk0 Strf 9040 Lvkv 90 SPAAG

Details of Vehicle: Mk 0. Analog environment & 14 Litre Scania Engine

Developed as a Self-Propelled Anti-Aircraft Gun, the 40mm main gun has an increased elevation. Detection and tracking is via the large PS-95 Radar system mounted on the right side of the turret.


1994?: Swedish Army Strf 9040A Ordered (Mk0)

Combat Vehicle 90 – Mk0 Strf 9040A
Combat Vehicle 90 – Mk0 Strf 9040A

Details of Vehicle: Mk 0. Analog environment & 14 Litre Scania Engine

External mounting of a gun stabilization system to the left of the main gun. All earlier production model upgraded to this standard. READ MORE STRF 9040 PAGE


Complete time line of all CV90 Export Models

1994: International CV90105 TML Turret

Combat Vehicle 90 – CV90105 TML Turret
Combat Vehicle 90 – CV90105 TML Turret

Details of Vehicle: Uses a French TNL 105mm turret on a Mk0 hull. READ MORE


1996: Export Model CV9030 Delivered To Norway (Mk1)

Combat Vehicle 90 – Mk1 CV9030
Combat Vehicle 90 – Mk1 CV9030

Details of Vehicle: Mk 1. Analog environment 14 Litre Scania Engine

(Norwegian CV9030N). The Mk1 was the export model of the CV9040. Armed with a 30mm main gun and up-armored to meet the needs of potential such as MEXAS used on Norwegian CV9030 (aka CV9030N).

⦁    Plates and coaxial MG have moved a bit
⦁    Additional sighting
⦁    Turret armor changed
⦁    New 30mm main gun and changes to mantle
⦁    Storage boxes added to the turret sides
⦁    Smoke Grenade Launcher clusters changed
⦁    Added armor to hull
⦁    Troop section hatch changed with additional cupola

READ MORE CV9030 PAGE


1997: Swedish Army Strf 9040B Ordered (Mk0)

Combat Vehicle 90 – Mk0 Strf 9040B
Combat Vehicle 90 – Mk0 Strf 9040B

Details of Vehicle: Mk 0. Analog environment & 14 Litre Scania Engine

External gun stabilization removed and now internal. In addition, Gunners back up sight mounted on left side of gun. READ MORE STRF 9040 PAGE


1998: International CV90120-T Medium Tank Unveiled

Combat Vehicle 90 – CV90120 Medium Tank
Combat Vehicle 90 – CV90120 Medium Tank

Details of Vehicle: Mk 0. Analog environment & 14 Litre Scania Engine

New Hägglunds turret with Ruag 120mm smoothbore main gun. Uses Mk0 hull and the turret was later upgraded. READ MORE


1999: Swedish Strf 9040/56 ordered (Mk0)

Combat Vehicle 90 - Mk0 Strf 9040_56
Combat Vehicle 90 – Mk0 Strf 9040_56

Details of Vehicle: Mk 0. Analog environment & 14 Litre Scania Engine

RB56 ATGM system trialled. Was eventually dropped and did not enter service. READ MORE


2002: International AMOS Mortar Unveiled

Combat Vehicle 90 – Mk0 Strf 9040 AMOS
Combat Vehicle 90 – Mk0 Strf 9040 AMOS

Details of Vehicle: Mk 0. Analog environment & 14 Litre Scania Engine

Joint project between Hägglunds and Finnish Patria, who created a new company for the project. Swedish Army interest in the project fizzled out and was not purchased. READ MORE AMOS TURRET PAGE


2002: Swedish Army Strf 9040C Delivered (Mk0)

Combat Vehicle 90 – Mk0 Strf 9040C
Combat Vehicle 90 – Mk0 Strf 9040C

Details of Vehicle: Mk 0. Analog environment & 14 Litre Scania Engine

Complete modular AMAP armor system installed, probably the most heavily armored Infantry Fighting Vehicle in Europe. Not all Strf 9040B have been upgraded to this model. READ MORE STRF 9040 PAGE


2003: Export Model CV9030 Delivered To Finland (Mk2)

Combat Vehicle 90 – Mk2 CV9030
Combat Vehicle 90 – Mk2 CV9030

Details of Vehicle: Mk 2. Digital environment & 16 Litre Scania Engine

Visible changes in the turret rear (point 1. above), saw an improved engine and Digital environment. READ MORE CV9030 PAGE


2005: Israeli Rafael “insensitive reactive armor” Unveiled

Combat Vehicle 90 – CV90 Rafael Reactive Armor
Combat Vehicle 90 – CV90 Rafael Reactive Armor

Details of Vehicle: Mk 2. Digital environment & 16 Litre Scania Engine

Proposed armor upgrade of the Mk2 by Rafael. No orders purchased.


2007?: International CV90120-T with AMAP-ADS Unveiled

Combat Vehicle 90 – CV90120 Medium Tank AMAP ADS
Combat Vehicle 90 – CV90120 Medium Tank AMAP ADS

Details of Vehicle: Mk 0. Analog environment & 14 Litre Scania Engine

Improved version of the earlier CV90120 with AMAP-ADS Hard Kill System. READ MORE


2007: Export Model CV9035 Delivered To Netherlands (Mk3)

Combat Vehicle 90 – Mk3 CV9035
Combat Vehicle 90 – Mk3 CV9035

Details of Vehicle: Mk 3. Digital environment & 16 Litre Scania Engine

⦁    New 35mm main gun
⦁    Frontal armor appears to change
⦁    New SAAB Active Protection System
⦁    Additional storage box
⦁    Changes to the rear of the turret

The CV9035 was delivered to both Denmark and the Netherlands from 2007 onwards.

The CV9035 does have armor upgrades, but not always used. These include the Roof PRO-P (marked in Yellow) and a standard armor upgrade to the hull sides and front. READ MORE CV9035 PAGE


2008/10: FRES SV Prototype For The British Army Unveiled (Mk3)

Combat Vehicle 90 – Mk3 FRES
Combat Vehicle 90 – Mk3 FRES

Details of Vehicle: Mk 3. Digital environment & 16 Litre Scania Engine

Developed for the British Army Future Rapid Effect System (FRES) Scout Role to replace the CVR(T). GDLS ASCOD design was selected in 2010 and the project ceased. Armed with a 40mm cannon and heavily armored. READ MORE


2011: International CV90120 Ghost Medium Tank With ADAPTIV Armor Unveiled

Combat Vehicle 90 – CV90120 Medium Tank ADAPTIV Armor
Combat Vehicle 90 – CV90120 Medium Tank ADAPTIV Armor

Details of Vehicle: Mk 0. Analog environment & 14 Litre Scania Engine (informed only the hull maybe Mk0)

New camouflage system. The Commanders Sight also has cameras to take photographs of surroundings to project on ADAPTIV armor. READ MORE


2012: Swedish Army Strf 9040C REMO Unveiled (Mk0)

Combat Vehicle 90 – Mk0 Strf 9040C Remo
Combat Vehicle 90 – Mk0 Strf 9040C Remo

Details of Vehicle: Mk 0. Analog environment & 14 Litre Scania Engine

Additional AMAP armor replacing older system for increased protection. Not in service. READ MORE STRF 9040 PAGE


2014: First Deliveries of Upgraded CV9030N To Norway (Mk2)

Combat Vehicle 90 – Mk2 CV9030 Norway Upgrade
Combat Vehicle 90 – Mk2 CV9030 Norway Upgrade

Details of Vehicle: Mk 3. Digital environment & 16 Litre Scania Engine

⦁    Added Remote Weapon Station with 40mm grenade launcher
⦁    Rubber tracks
⦁    Improved side armor
⦁    Improvements to digital environment

READ MORE CV9030 PAGE


2014: International Medium Tank CV90105-T XC-8 105HP Turret

Combat Vehicle 90 – CV90 XC-8 105HP Turret
Combat Vehicle 90 – CV90 XC-8 105HP Turret

Details of Vehicle: Mk 0. Analog environment & 14 Litre Scania Engine?

Joint project with Cockerill, the installation of their XC-8 105HP turret. READ MORE


2015: Mk3 Armadillo Delivered To Denmark

Combat Vehicle 90 – CV90 Armadillo
Combat Vehicle 90 – CV90 Armadillo

Details of Vehicle: Heavily up-armored Mk3

Built as an APC but photographed with a Remote Weapon Station fitted with a 30mm main gun (pictured above). Uses rubber tracks and other advanced mobility components. The vehicle has been trialled in Denmark for trails. READ MORE


2016 (July): AMV35 with CV9035 Turret Selected by Australia

Combat Vehicle 90 – Patria AMV35 feat CV9035 Turret
Combat Vehicle 90 – Patria AMV35 feat CV9035 Turret

Details of Vehicle: Hybrid vehicle, with CV9035 Turret

Joint development project with Patria for the Australian Land 400 Program Phase 2. 1 of 2 vehicles selected for 12 months of trials in 2016. Vehicle is a standard Patria AMV 8×8 and fully loaded CV9035 turret (E35). The Boxer CRV eventually won the program. READ MORE


2016 (September): CV9035 Offered to Australia

Combat Vehicle 90 – CV9035 for Land 400 Prgram
Combat Vehicle 90 – CV9035 for Land 400 Program

Details of Vehicle: Mk 3. Digital environment & 16 Litre Scania Engine

BAE Systems offer the Australian Army the CV9035 Tracked IFV for their Land 400 Program Phase 3. Phase 3 selection and trials TBA at a later date. Vehicles would mmost likely be built at BAE Systems Australia. Program won by South Korean K21. READ MORE CV9035 PAGE


2016: Sweden orders first 40 Granatkastarpansarbandvagn 90 (Mk2)

CV90 Mjölner Mortar System
CV90 Mjölner Mortar System

Details of Vehicle: Mk 2 hull dual 120mm mortar turret

Hulls from previous cancelled AMOS order. Mjölner turret system features dual 120mm mortars. READ MORE


2018: CV90 Mk IV unveiled

CV90 Mk IV
CV90 Mk IV

Details of Vehicle: Mk 4. Digital environment, Scania 1000hp Engine

Unveiled at the International Armoured Vehicles Conference in London, the vehicle is classed as a 5th Generation Infantry Fighting Vehicle. READ MORE CV90 Mk IV PAGE


2020: CV90 Trials Spike ATGM

CV90 Spike ATGM
CV90 Spike ATGM

Details of Vehicle: Dual ATGM launcher

Successful trials of Rafael Advanced Defense Systems’ Spike-LR (long range) missile mounted on a CV90 and later added to CV90 MkIV.


2021: New D-series turret unveiled

New CV90 MkIV D-series turret
New CV90 MkIV D-series turret

Details of Vehicle: New digital architecture

  • Complete with IronFist Hard Kill Active Protection System
  • SPIKE-LR ATGM dual launcher
  • AI technology
  • 35mm to 50mm Main Gun

READ MORE CV90 Mk IV Page


2022: Export Model CV90 Mk IV Ordered by Slovakia (Mk4)

CV90 Mk IV
CV90 Mk IV

Details of Vehicle: Mk 4. Digital environment, Scania 1000hp Engine

246 CV90 MkIV infantry fighting vehicles in seven different variants have been ordered READ MORE CV90 Mk IV PAGE


2023: New CV90 Vehicle Variants In Development

orward Maintenance vehicle and the Combat Engineer variant
Forward Maintenance vehicle and the Combat Engineer variant

Details of Vehicle: Forward Maintenance vehicle and the Combat Engineer variant

In development with Norwegian company Ritek AS to produce two new CV90 variants for the Swedish Army.

Firepower

The Combat Vehicle 90 is capable of mounting various calibre chain guns as its principal weapon. The Strf 90 is equipped with the Bofors 40mm main gun, whilst export vehicles vary depending on the operator such as the 30mm Mk44 Bushmaster II or The 35mm Bushmaster III. The CV90 MkIV features a new 50mm chain gun as an alternative to the 35mm Bushmaster.

The Strf 9040 was trialled with an Anti-Tank Guided Missile system, the Bofors RB56, but was not accepted into service.

The most successful ATGM has been Rafael’s Advanced Defense Systems’ Spike-LR (long range) missile, housed under armour in a dual launcher. Spike is offered as standard for the MkIV D series Turret.

In late 2022, BAE completed firing trials with MBDA’s 5th generation ATGM AKERON missile on a CV90 Mk IV.

 

Protection

The Combat Vehicle 90 is made of steel that offers frontal protection against 30mm rounds and 14.5mm rounds on both sides and rear. In addition armoured plates can be attached to the hull and turret, depending on the operators requirements.

A number of modular add-on armour packages have also been trialled and used on the CV90:

  • German MEXAS modular armour
  • German AMAP modular armour
  • Israeli Rafael Reactive armour

Other defence features include Smoke Grenade Launchers to mask the vehicle whilst withdrawing from its position and specialised exhaust with a cooling system to prevent it from showing up on enemy thermal sights.

The MkIV now features as standard the Hard-Kill Iron Fist Active Protection System. Other APS have been used on different models of the CV90 Medium tank series as well as ADAPTIV camouflage armour.

Mobility

The Combat Vehicle 90 has always used Scania diesel engines. These have been uprated as the weight has increased on each vehicle Mk. The CV90 uses a Perkins transmission, 4 forward and 2 reverse gears with torsion bar suspension. A new adaptive suspension system has been developed.

Operators

Please note: (unless otherwise stated) all operator numbers ordered, dates and price info is obtained from the Arms Trade Register. You will find links for dedicated pages to each countries model CV90 under “model” in the listings if available.

Czech Republic

Model: CV90 MkIV

246 new CV90 MkIV ordered in 2023. Expected delivery date unknown.

Denmark

Model: CV9035DK

44 Mk3 CV9035 were ordered in 2005. Deliveries started in 2008 and were completed in 2010. In 2016, BAE signed an agreement to install a new battlefield management radio system to all CV9035DK.

Estonia

Model: CV9035NL

44 surplus Dutch CV9035NL were purchased by Estonia in 2014. Deliveries started in 2016. In 2016 an additional 35 surplus vehicles were purchased from Norway. These vehicles will be overhauled and upgraded with the KONGSBERG PROTECTOR RS4 Weapons Station which can be fitted with Javelin ATGM, which Estonia has operated since 2016.

Finland

Model: CV9030FIN

Finland has purchased a total of 107 CV9035 in 2 separate orders. The first order was in 2000, for 57 vehicles. These were delivered in 2003 to 2007. The second order was in 2004 for 45 vehicles. These vehicles were delivered from 2006 to 2007 with some vehicle components supplied from Finland including a PKMT coaxial Machine Gun.

A Mid-Life extension program was signed with BAE in July 2021 with an expected fleet completion date of 2026.

Netherlands

Model: CV9035NL

184 CV9035 were ordered in 2004 for the Dutch Army. Deliveries were started in 2007 and were completed in 2012. The Netherlands sold 44 surplus vehicles to Estonia.

In January 2021 the Royal Dutch Army took delivery of their first CV9035 vehicles that had gone through their mid-life upgrade. A total of 122 vehicles will go through the program, which will extend their service life until 2039.

The principal upgrade is BAE’s new D-Series turret, complete with dual Spike ATGM launcher and Iron Fist APS giving the vehicle similar capabilities to the CV90 MkIV.

Norway

Model: CV9030N

Norway initially purchased 104 CV9030 in 1994. Deliveries started in 1996 and were completed in 2000. In 2012 the Norwegian Government announced 103 of its existing CV9030 Mk I were to be upgraded to a Mk III standard and an additional 41 newly built Mk III were to be purchased (so both sets of vehicles are the same) bringing the total number of CV90 to 144 Mk III vehicles – 74 infantry fighting, 21 reconnaissance, 15 command, 16 engineering, and 16 multi-role and 2 driver training vehicles. The multi-role vehicles can fulfill different functions, including mortar carrier and logistics roles. The first vehicles were delivered in 2015.

In 2016, Norway sold 35 vehicles to Estonia.

In February 2021, an additional 20 vehicles were ordered, which were 12 engineering and eight multi-carrier  variants. Deliveries started in 2022.

Slovakia

Model: CV90 MkIV

Slovakia placed an order for 152 of the latest version of the CV 90, the Mk IV in December 2022.

Sweden

Model: Strf 9040

Originally developed and manufactured for the Swedish Army, the CV90 is locally known as the Strf 9040. It has been upgraded several times with the most modern model being the uparmored Strf 9040C. Development and prototype production ran from 1983 to 1991 when the first order was placed. Production of all 500 Strf 9040 and its variants was completed in 2002.

In 2016, BAE announced that 262 Strf 9040 would be refurbished between 2018 and 2020. Details were scarce, but said the vehicle would receive survivability enhancements, chassis refurbishment and a Battlefield Management System.

In 2016, Sweden ordered 40 Granatkastarpansarbandvagn 90 mortar vehicles. The AMOS had been selected earlier, but later cancelled. BAE had kept the CV90 Mk 2 hulls originally purchased for the AMOS and used these for the new mortar vehicles.

Switzerland

Model: CV9030CH

Switzerland purchased a total of 186 CV9030 in 2000 for $424,000,000. Deliveries ran from 2001 to 2005.

In 2020 an agreement was signed with BAE to carry out a mid-life extension program for all Swiss CV90. It involves a new electrical architecture replacing the old one, a new Auxiliary Power Unit, Situational Cameras and a number of other improvements to extend the fleets service life to 2040. The refurbished vehicle is designated “Schützenpanzer 2000”.

Ukraine

Model: Strf 9040C

Ukraine was donated 50 Swedish Strf 9040C, which arrived in Ukraine in the summer of 2023 following a months long training of Ukrainian crews in Sweden.

 

Combat History

Liberia

The Swedish Army have deployed the Strf 9040C as part of both the Swedish UN-forces in Liberia during 2004.

War In Afghanistan

Norway > Denmark

The CV9035DK has been deployed with the Danish Army as part of ISAF in the Afghanistan War as has the CV9030N with the Norwegian Army. A CV9030N hit an IED resulting in the tragic loss of one Norwegian solider and two others injured.

Russian Invasion of Ukraine

Strf 9040C operated by Ukrainian forces have been operating the vehicle in the war since mid 2023. At least one was destroyed and a second disabled, which was captured by Russian Forces for inspection.

Specifications

characteristic
Result
Main Gun
40mm (Bofors) Chain Gun Elevation -8 to +35
ATGM Capability
Secondary Weapons
Coaxial 7.62mm Machine Gun, Optional Remote Weapons Station with MG
Ammunition Storage
?
Engine
Scania DS14 550hp Diesel
Transmission
Perkins X300 Series x4 speed forward/x2 reverse
Top Road Speed
70 km/h
Road Range
600km
Fuel Capacity
525 litres
Vertical Obstacle
1m
Water Capability
1.4m
Trench Crossing
2.4m
Gradient
60%
Side Slope
40%
Length Gun Forward
6.47m
Length Hull
6.6m
Width
3.003m
Height
2.5m (Turret Top)
Ground Clearance
0.45m
Weight
22.8 tonne combat
NBC Protected
yes
Standard Armor(s) Type
Steel
Optional Add-on Armor(s) Type
Laminated, Composite, Spaced, Bar, Modular
Active Protection Systems
no
Crew
Commander, Gunner, Driver
Infantry
8

References

Mk0 Strf 9040

⦁    http://www.baesystems.com/cs/ContentServer?packedargs=WEBROOTNAME%3Den_global&c=BAEProduct_C&childpagename=Global%2FBAELayout&rendermode=preview&pagename=GlobalWrapper&cid=1434566346255
⦁    History http://www.sphf.se/CV90%20bok.htm
⦁    https://www.soldf.com/strf9040.html
⦁    http://www.primeportal.net/apc/olof_nilsson/cv9040c_photos.htm
⦁    http://www.primeportal.net/apc/roger_johansson/cv9040/
⦁    Government Timeline http://www.fmv.se/sv/Projekt/Stridsfordon-90/Milstolpar/

Mk1 CV9030

http://bemil.chosun.com/nbrd/gallery/view.html?b_bbs_id=10044&num=45475

Mk2 CV9030

⦁    http://www.combatandsurvival.com/world-news/5552-norway-upgrade-is-most-advanced-cv90-to-date
⦁    http://www.rafael.co.il/Marketing/349-en/Marketing.aspx?searchText=CV90
⦁    http://www.panzerbaer.de/types/nl_ifv_cv90-a.htm

Mk3 CV9035

⦁    Dutch CV9035 DK http://www.armyvehicles.dk/cv9035.htm
⦁    http://www.ruag.com/defence/land-systems/protection/roof-protection-for-armoured-vehicles-roofpro-p/
⦁    Netherlands pre-up armor http://primeportal.net/apc/erik_jan_eskes/cv9035/
⦁    Netherlands up-armored http://www.primeportal.net/apc/arnout_zaal/cv9035_mkiii/

Mk3 Armadillo & Mk3 FRES SV

⦁    http://www.baesystems.com/en-uk/product/cv90-armadillo—multi-role-flexibility
⦁    http://tanknutdave.com/the-bae-fres-sv/