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Turkish M60T Tank

M60T Main Battle Tank

Turkish M60T Tank
Unveiled / Entered Service
Turkish M60TM Tank
In Service
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The M60T is the designation of American M60A1 Tanks in service with the Turkish Land Forces that were upgraded to the Israeli Sabra Mk II tank standard. The upgrade saw significant improvements in firepower, protection and mobility.

Since completion of the M60T upgrade, the tank has undergone a further two more indigenous upgrade programs, the 2017 "FIRAT-M60T Project" resulting in the M60TM and the 2022 "TİYK-M60T Project" of all M60TM. The Turkish TİYK-M60T will be the most advanced and effective upgraded M60A1 in the world.


Israel had operated the M60 Patton series of tanks since the 1970’s right up to the early 2000’s. During this time, it developed a strong indigenous defence industry, capable of producing in-depth upgrades for their Patton series, known locally as the “Magach” tank series.

Israeli company IMI Systems (previously Israel Military Industries) developed a significant upgrade package for international operators of the M60 series called the “Sabra” tank.

The initial package (now known as the Mk I) was further developed to meet the modernisation needs of the Turkish Land Forces and was refereed to as Mk II and retains the original M60 commanders cupola.

All works were carried out in Turkey under licence and using parts supplied by IMI. A total of 170 M60A1 vehicles were upgraded, with the final tank handed over in April 2010.


The initial Mk I Sabra upgrade saw the M60 standard 105mm rifled main gun, replaced with the same 120mm smoothbore main gun and fire control system used on the Merkava Mk III Main Battle Tank. The hydraulic turret & gun stabilization drive on the M60A1/A3 was replaced with an all electrical one.



The M60T features the Sabra Mk I modular armour containing ceramic inserts fitted across both the turret and hull, but has been modified with additional Explosive Reactive Armour.


The M60T powerpack comprises the 10oohp MT881 Ka-501 diesel engine and Renk 304S transmission with 4 forward and 4 reverse gears.

Variants and Marks

FIRAT-M60T Project aka M60TM

In 2017 a contract was placed to upgrade 125 M60T to the M60TM under the “FIRAT-M60T” project to meet the urgent requirements of the Turkish Land Forces following the lessons learnt in the 2016 operation Euphrates Shield.

It featured a new TLUS soft kill and PULAT hard kill Active Protection Systems, ADIS Drivers sight, Aux Power Unit, Air-Conditioning, spald liners and UKSS Remote Weapon Station as well as Telescopic Periscope Sistemi.

TİYK-M60T Project

In 2022 a contract was signed with ASELAN to modernise all M60TM. The full scope of the proposed works is not confirmed. However, it is expected that it will include similar digital technology such as the Volkan Fire Control Systems and battlefield management systems that are being installed on the Leopard 2A4 upgrade program, TİYK-LEOP2A4 and Altay Main Battle Tank, bringing all three tanks up to a similar standard and allowing them to all work together on the battlefield.

TİYK-M60A3 Project

Several hundred non-upgraded M60A3 tanks are still in service with the Turkish Land Forces. There is a possibility that some of these tanks will receive the same upgrades the M60TM will receive from the TİYK-M60T Project.

Combat History

The M60T was deployed along with M60A3 and Leopard 2A4 Tanks in the 2016 operation Euphrates Shield. At least one tank was destroyed during the much-publicised battle in an operation to clear ISIS fighters from a hospital outside the Syrian city of al-Bab in December 2016. A more significant number of Leopard 2A4 were lost.

Another M60T was heavily damaged by an ATGM in fighting in Bashiqa, which is located in the North of Iraq.


Main Gun
120mm, calibre Length 44 smoothbore MG253
Secondary Weapons
Coaxial 7.62mm Machine Gun, commanders 50 cal machine gun, Remote Weapons Station with MG
Ammunition Storage
x40 120mm
10oohp MT881 Ka-501 diesel engine
Renk 304S
Top Road Speed
Road Range
Fuel Capacity
200 Litres
Vertical Obstacle
Water Capability
Trench Crossing
Side Slope
Length Gun Forward
Length Hull
Ground Clearance
59 Tonnes
NBC Protected
Standard Armor(s) Type
Steel, Composite, Spaced, Modular, Explosive Reactive Armour (ERA)
Optional Add-on Armor(s) Type
Active Protection Systems
Commander, Gunner, Loader, Driver