Leopard 2 Evolution exported to Singapore to the Leopard 2SG

Leopard 2 Evolution technology was exported to Singapore for the Leopard 2SG

The Leopard 2 Evolution is a former armor upgrade package developed by German Company IBD Deisenroth Engineering. The Leopard 2 Evolution featured a new modular armor system containing the company’s next-generation AMAP armor.

First seen between 2007 to 2008, some online sources wrongfully miss-identify the newer Rheinmetall Revolution as the older Evolution, which is no longer marketed.

Whilst the Rheinmetall Revolution (now marketed as the Leopard 2 Tank Advanced Technology Demonstrator)  includes a modular armor system containing AMAP, it has a significant number of upgrades in both fire control systems and other technology not available from IBD and is therefore a completely new refurbished and modernised Main Battle Tank.

The Evolution package was tailored specifically for current or future operators (at the time) of surplus Leopard 2A4 Tanks and was eventually picked by Singapore for their imported surplus Leopard 2A4 and was integrated by ST Kinetics.

Leopard 2 Evolution Armor Overview

Leopard 2 Evolution AMAP Armor Overview

Leopard 2 Evolution AMAP Armor Overview

AMAP armor is the successor to the companies highly successful MEXAS armor system used not only on the Leopard 2A5 and Leopard 2A6 tanks, but a number of other military vehicles within the NATO Alliance.

AMAP has several different next-generation armor inserts, each tailored to a specific threat that could be installed in the Evolution modular armor system as per the clients requirements, depending on the perceived scenario. In addition, AMAP featured an Active Protection System called AMAP-ADS, which is a hard kill type.

The Evolution modular armor not only offered next-generation protection over the frontal arc, but all-round protection for fighting in-built up areas, but also on the turret roof protecting the fighting compartment from top attack.

Leopard 2 Evolution AMAP


AMAP-ADS is a “hard kill” Active Protection System that detects and intecepts incoming projectiles with a muzzle velocity of up too 2,000m per second. It provides a form of  360° stand off protection against the following threats:

  • Anti-tank guided missiles (ATGMs)
  • Handheld Anti-Tank weapons (including RPG-7)
  • KE projectiles of all calibres, mid- and large calibre APFSDS
  • Explosively Formed Projectiles (EFPs)


AMAP-B is a high-technology composite specially adapted to protect against ballistic and Kinetic Energy penetrators and Armor Piercing rounds. STANAG 4569 compliant, its effectivness can be increased from Level 1 to 5 and can withstand multiple hits from AP rounds as well as absorbing the impact energy of the round.


AMAP-IED (Improvised Explosive Devices) protection uses a combinations of highly developed ceramic faced armour, energy absorbing mine protection and liner technologies, resulting in a flexible and modular IED protection solution against extreme threats.


AMAP-M uses a special advanced composite material that prevents both the vehicle being catapulted upwards and the resulting force exerted on the crew when a mine is detonanted underneath the vehicle and prevents fragments penetrating the belly.


AMAP-SC is a composite armor designed to specifically protect against shape charged projectiles, specifically RPG-7 and Explosively Formed Projectiles (EFPs).


IBD has succeeded in developing an ultralight bomblet roof protection system. In order to protect vehicles reliably from bomblets and EFPs, the ultralight layer of AMAP-R is completed by a high-performance EFP-layer (level 2). This double-functional sandwich construction produces an areal density of appr. 120 kg/m².


AMAP-L is an extremely high-grade intelligent spald Liner made of composite fibre materials used to Line the inside of the tank. AMAP-L acts as an inner protection system in the event that the outer armor is penetrated by projectiles to protect the crew from fragments. AMAP-L also contributes to a reduction of noise, vibrations and IR-signature.

Leopard 2 Evolution Status


Model: Leopard 2SG

182 surplus Leopard 2A4 were ordered from Germany in 2007. Deliveries started in the same year and were completed in 2012. Since then a large number have been upgraded with elements of the IBD Evolution package and re-designated the Leopard 2SG, which visually looks more similar to the MBT Evolution.

Rheinmetall Chempro GmbH

In 2007, IBD Deisenroth and Rheinmetall entered a strategic alliance, forming the shareholder structure for a new company, Rheinmetall Chempro GmbH, which serves as a joint production base for producing highly advanced protection systems (AMAP) in Bonn.

Leopard 2 Revolution

Developed by Rheinmetall, the Revolution features AMAP armor with Rheinmetall’s own modular armor system. The Revolution features a number of additional upgrades not offered by the Evolution, which is no longer marketed.

The Revolution and its AMAP armor have been exported to a number of countries operating surplus Leopard 2A4 Tanks. Click For Dedicated Page …

MBT Evolution

Developed by Rheinmetall, the MBT Evolution was unveiled at the 2014 Eurosatory defence expo held in Paris, France. The MBT Evolution is the latest version of the Leopard 2 Evolution. Click For Dedicated Page …

Leopard 2 Evolution Specifications

Main Gun Rheinmetall L44 – 120mm, calibre Length 44 smoothbore
Elevation -9 to +20
Secondary Weapons x1 coaxial 7.62mm MG, x1 7.62mm MG
Ammunition Storage x42 120mm, x4,750 7.62mm
Engine MTU Mb 873 ka 501, turbocharged 1500hp Diesel
Transmission RENK HSWL 354, 4 speed forward/2 reverse
Top Road Speed 68 km/h
Road Range 550km
Fuel Capacity 1160 litres
Vertical Obstacle 1.1m
Water Capability 1m (4m with Snorkel)
Trench Crossing 3m
Gradient 60%
Side Slope 30%
Length Gun Forward 9.67m
Length Hull 7.72m+
Height 2.48m+
Ground Clearance 0.54m?
Weight 60,000kg aka 60 tonne combat
NBC Protected Yes
Armor Type Steel/Tungsten/Modular/Composite/Cage
Active Protection Systems Yes
Commander Yes
Gunner Yes
Loader Yes
Driver Yes
Additional Crew
Troops Carried N/A




Interview with Rheinmetall at DVD 2016 Defence Expo